08.11.2019 in Book Report
Black Mold

A mold is a form of a fungus that grows in warm areas and humid environments that can be both indoor and outdoor.  Black mold is a name that commonly refers to Stachybotrys Chartarum. It is an utterly toxic mold because it grows even in houses and can be dangerous to the well-being of humans.  The mold may lead to serious health implications that pertain to the damage of internal organs, which can lead to death in severe predicaments.  In the recent past, the topic of black molds and the health concerns it has over the human being life cycle has been an issue of concern to the health practitioners.  The explanations that scientists attempt to bring forth in the explanation of black molds have been confronted with a lot of impurities and misconceptions. As a result, the perception of toxic molds and the degree of toxicities varies from one person to another depending on their school of thought.

Preliminary bibliography

According to Berylach and Jeffrey, black mold can be found everywhere at any point in time. It does not have any special conditions and timings.  The author emphasizes that the mold has very many distinct forms and most likely grows in warm and humid areas. A common location where a mold will be more likely to be found indoors is areas with high moisture and very low ventilation. Such areas will include pipes, basements or even bathrooms.  The author also explains that there are some body systems that are set up in a manner that they become mold resistant.  People with pollen allergies can flare along because they tend to have seasonal symptoms. In the presence of a mold, they may find themselves coughing, wheezing or having irritating eyes and they are hence susceptible to mold health implications.  


As a matter of fact, indoor molds are very toxic and dangerous because they are odorless and can even go unnoticed for quite some time.   The mold will tend to impair its structural integrity by changing the material that it lives on and may be brought about infections and allergies.  The category of people that are more vulnerable to mold-related infections are those suffering from asthma, allergies or have a compromised form of an immune system.  However, with constant growth of the mold through the relevant reproduction methods, the mold becomes bigger, which is when the odor can now be felt.  The health implications will still take place even when the mold is in its early stages, so it only makes the predicament more dangerous. 

According to Bush et al, the severity of fungal infections have been analysed within the context of the human mycosis.  Mycoses or fungal infections have paved way for an array of diseases in humans. Those persons who have high chances of being taken down by fungal infections are those who have had a history of organ transplantation or immunodeficiency syndrome. In this respect, mold is a form of a fungal infection, and it falls within the wide spectrum of mycoses. In addition, the clinical nomenclature that is applicable for mycoses takes place on the basis of the infection site, the type of virulence that the fungus exhibits and route of pathogen acquisition.  The author emphasizes that the fungal infections can be harmful because the fungus reproduces through its spores and these are spread through the air.  However, the pores will vary because it will depend on the material that they are found. Consequently, as a result of spreading through the air, they will settle in the environment that is favorable for the mold start reproducing. The mold thus continues to grow and develop.   

According to Reiss et al,., indoor molds can be very harmful because these kinds of molds cannot remain dormant because of the constant availability of moisture.  The molds that can be found outdoors can remain dormant for a significant period as a result of dry conditions. In indoors, even in places that have less moisture is prevalent of having high humidity levels that give an impression that the mold is persistently active.  The most common kinds of mold that can be found indoors include Penicillium, Cladosporium, Stachybotrys Chartarum and Aspergillus. The black mold is not visible especially during its early stages. According to the author, the mode of reproduction for this mold is through spores and moisturized environment fosters its growth. Similarly as a result of an exposure to a mold, the infants may develop a respiratory complication. The symptoms of a vulnerable child will vary from persistent coughing; wheezing and skin irritation in some circumstances. 

The article by Medscape lays emphasis on the degree of dangers that black molds may pose on human life. It is, therefore, recommendable to disinfect the areas that are more susceptible such as water pipes and dump environments. The health implications of back molds can be very severe and will include swelling of the kings that are a pulmonary edema, sore throat, itchy nose and a runny nose.  The author also emphasizes that the toxic black mold mycotoxins can be breathed ingested and absorbed through the skin or eyes of a vulnerable individual.  The implication is that the black mold will end up finding their way into the human blood system in one way or another. Subsequently, heart-damaging complications may arise and may in severe circumstances lead to heart damage, external hemorrhaging and internal blood clots.  There is also the vision and eye symptom that may enter a person’s eye and lead to jaundice or inflammation.  Other major implications that can be hazardous will include the suppression of the immune system, birth defects, inhibition of protein synthesis and the release of a sedative known as chloral hydrate.  

Davis believes that molds aid in the excretion of toxic substances known as mycotoxins under certain environmental conditions.  In addition, the environmental conditions are the major determinants that are most likely to undermine the production of mycotoxins. Temperature and pH also play a factor.  According to the author, mycotoxins are more likely to be found on mold fragments and mold spores.  The prevention of mold exposure can be prevented by the prevention of mold growth. Mold growth prevention will be aided by avoiding the environments that will foster the development of the fungal infections such as prevention of humid air within the households. In addition, moisture stemming from water floods should also not be encouraged as they create a breeding spot for molds and other fungal infections. The author implies that the prevention of molds within the households where it is more vulnerable can be negated through discouraging the mold breeding environments.  Bathrooms and other humid and moisture prevalent areas should be subject to regularly disinfecting. It will also be of paramount importance to maintain appropriate levels of all-round cleanliness.  

According to the Dictionary of Developmental Biology and Embryology, the topic of black molds has been more inclined towards the basics of understanding the nature of black molds.  There are a thousand of species that on a global scale all of which are classified as being under fungi.   A significant number of molds and their different species or categories are not harmful towards human beings. The black mold comes in all sizes and can be of different colors that will normally range from black to orange.  What would distinct the various kinds of black modes is their textures and profiles to some degree because others are hairy while others have a bumpy appearance?  There are other toxic fungal infections that exist but the black molds are the most toxic. The development of the mold will be dependent on humidity and moisture levels. Its color will vary from greenish black to a grey colouration.  When it has grown to its entirety, the black mold will no longer be odorless.  It will have a smell that can be easily noticed because of its musty odor. 

Literature review 

The literature review part of the research paper will revolve around the sources that have been used in the research. Sources used in this part of the paper comprise of sources that make up the annotation. The literature review will address the nature of information that has been derived from the sources and how useful and applicable the sources have been in the provision of the relevant information.  The sources will also be under criticism in case they did not fulfill some expectation, or the author did not cover a particular subject comprehensively. 

The author’s content in Dictionary of Developmental Biology and Embryology has been very relevant, and his topic has been appropriate with the aim of the research. The content has been very helpful in giving a well described by all the natural components of black molds more so its physical characteristics. The reader can thus have awareness on what to tackle after reading all the background information regarding the topic to be discussed.  The author has also given a very clear explanation pertaining to the susceptibility of the mold on pregnant women, infants, and the elderly or aged population.  The book has thus been very helpful.  However, because the book addresses the toxicity of the black molds, it would have also been better if the author had touched on other molds that are equally toxic. Such molds include Aspergillus Niger, which can be found in those environments that have a little nutritional value for their growth. The mold is usually black in color even though it has a yellow or white coloring underneath. However, the author should have given at least a brief explanation on another toxic mold such as memnoniella echinata which is prevalent in linene or cotton. However, the content of the book has been helpful, and the research would be half-baked were it not for the information I found. 

According to the book by Davis, he emphasizes the needs of standardization assessment for the environmental molds together with the degree of exposure. The author also lays emphasis on the importance of undertaking regular environmental assessments so as to determine the reason as to why somebody may develop airborne substances. The book has been of paramount of research in gathering information pertaining to the prevalence of black molds and the health implications it poses to humankind.  Because of the standardization assessments that the author was laying emphasis on, the content has efficiently aided the research process. However, the author does not focus on some of the types of molds and what brings about the distinct kinds of molds. Such an analysis would have been vital in giving the reader all-round information in regards to the black molds. 

The content the Reiss has laid down has been very useful in the research because it categorically gives succinct information on the health implication that can arise from molds exposure. The information refers to black mold as the ‘toxic mold syndrome’, which is more of a legal construct as opposed to a medical diagnosis.  The black air mold is an indoor air contaminant found in places where moisture stagnates.  The information I obtained from the book gave me a much better understanding of the effects of molds that are attributable to the toxic model syndrome. However, it would have been much better had the author based his argument on the nature of black mold prevention. The information had been it provided would have given the reader a much better understanding of how the severe health implications of the molds would be prevented. However, from a general perspective, the book has been helpful, and its contribution to the research is not negligible.  

Medscape article has been laying so much emphasis on the black mold that he describes as Stachybotrys Chartarum.   The perception of the author is that the mold is a slow growing mold whose growth will be predominant in cotton, paper and wood.  The mold spores are responsible for giving rise to an allergic reaction such as asthma or other respiratory complications. What was helpful from this article is that the author has categorically focused on several health implications that stems from the molds in a very comprehensive manner? In this respect, the reader can thus draw the line between the various health hazards of the black molds, what brings about the black molds. A reader can also identify the various steps that ought to be undertaken so as to prevent the molds from forming and negative the repercussions of having such in a household setting. 

The literature of Berylach and Jeffery has also been an important component of the research because it outlines a succinct explanation of the specific recommendations that one would exercise if they came across a black mold in a home. Among his recommendations is replacing carpets that appear to be flooded, not carpeting the bathrooms and other areas that are prone to moisture such as the kitchen. The authors also recommend for adding paints that have mold inhibitors and ensuring enough ventilation all across the rooms. The book has been important for research purpose because recommends to the reader the precautions that would prevent the inhibition of black molds. After all, prevention is better than cure. Even though the book has been important in the research fact findings, its use has been limited because it was not of much help in areas such explanation of the causes of black models. 

Bush’s et al., journal article has been important in creating an awareness of how widespread the molds have been in real life.  The in thing is that most of the sources that have been used in the book emphasize so much on the nature of the black molds, the prevention strategies, and the health implications. The article has been an important part of the research because it has a more a practical approach that one should adhere to when they come across a mold.  It, therefore, gives the reader the impetus to prevent and control the occurrence of such predicaments. In the book, the author has given statistics that show how widespread the infection is becoming because of the contemporary ways of life.   25% of households and 405% of schools in America have black molds on their premises, even though, the occupants are not aware.  It, therefore, follows that the black molds have some adverse effects and may reach pandemic levels if not given the necessary attention.   The book has been a very vital component for the research purposes as its contents brings forth the ideology of gram positive and gram negative that are equally toxic and grow along with the mold. Everyone is vulnerable to the exposure of toxic models, and the necessary measures ought to be taken for the prevention of such. 


Black molds can be very dangerous and toxic especially in the early stages. The reason is that they cannot be noticed by a naked eye the molds do not have any odor and can grow and continue reproducing in different areas in a room. However, when a mold becomes large, enough infestation can be seen or even smelled. The bone of contention is that even before the mold become large enough, it is also likely to cause infection more so to the individuals who are allergic or have an asthma history.  The bottom line is that in order to negate the infections that stem from black molds; it is the prerogative of an individual to regularly disinfect the areas that are more vulnerable. The maintenance of hygienic levels is also recommendable.  In the event where a black mold has been big enough to the extent of being noticed with a naked eye, it can be removed using soap, water or commercial products.  A bleach solution may also come in handy.

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