Jan 22, 2018 in Medicine

Cancer is a medical condition characterized with uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancerous cells are also known as malignant cells. According to researchers, there are two causes of cancer: environmental causes and hereditary genetic causes. In most cases, cancer is an environmental disease though genetics influence the risk of some cancers. 90-95% of cases are attributed to environmental factors while 5-10% is due to genetics (Anand, 2008).

Environmental factors include tobacco, diet and obesity, infections, radiation, lack of physical activity, and environmental pollutants. These factors may cause or enhance abnormalities in the genetic material of cells. Cancer can affect people of all ages. Although a few types of cancer are more prevalent in children, the overall risk of developing cancer increases with age. In 2007 cancer accounted for 13% of all human deaths worldwide (7.9 million) (Jemal, 2011).

The skin constitutes the largest organ of the body. It covers the internal organs and protects them from injury: serves as a barrier between germs, such as bacteria, and internal organs; and prevents the loss of too much water and other fluids. It regulates body temperature and helps the body get rid of excess water and salts. Certain cells in the skin communicate with the brain and allow temperature, touch, and pain sensations.

Skin cancer is one of the most common types of cancers. It is a type of cancer that forms in the tissues of the skin. Nearly, half of all cancers in the United States are skin cancer. The most serious type of skin cancer is melanoma accounted for about 68,130 cases of skin cancer in 2010.Different types of skin cancer include melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma.

Cancer has been a real menace in the American History. In 1971, President Nixon declared war on cancer. Since then, the American government has dedicated over 200 billion dollars on cancer research. Going by the established facts, skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and more than 3.5 million skin cancers in over two million people are diagnosed annually.

Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the prostate gland, a gland in the male reproductive system. The gland has several types of cells. In most cases prostate cancer develop form gland cells. The medical term for cancer that starts in the gland cell is adenocarcimoma. The cancer cells may spread (metastasize) from the prostate to other parts of the body, especially the bones and lymph nodes. The cancer may cause pain, erectile dysfunction problems during sexual intercourse or difficulty in urinating, In addition, other severe symptoms can potentially develop during later stages of the disease. The specific causes of prostate cancer are still unknown (Hsing,). However, some doctors believe prostrate cancer begins with pre-cancerous conditions referred as prostaticintraepitheial neoplasia. Studies have shown that prostrate cancer is the second alongside skin cancer among americam men (American Cancer Society, 2010)

Breast cancer starts in the tissues of the breast. Main types of breast cancer include Ductal carcinoma which starts in the ducts that that move milk from the breast to the nipples and Lobular carcinoma which starts in the lobules that produce milk. Some evident breast cancer symptoms include breast lump or lump in the armpit, change in the size, shape, or feel of the breast or nipple and fluid coming from the nipple which may be bloody, clear to yellow, green, and look like pus. Symptoms of advanced breast cancer may include: bone pain, breast pain or discomfort, skin ulcers, swelling of one arm (next to the breast with cancer) and weight loss.

Breast cancer accounts 22.9% of all non-melanoma skin cancers in women. Breast cancer is more than 100 times more common in women than breast cancer in men, although males tend to have poorer outcomes due to delays in diagnosis.

Lung cancer is a medical condition that consists of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. The growth causes metastasis which is the invasion of adjacent tissues and infiltration beyond the lungs. Majority of primary lung cancers are carcinomas, derived from epithelial cells. Lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women, is responsible for 1.3 million deaths worldwide annually, as of 2004.

The common types of lung cancer include small-cell lung carcinoma and non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Lung cancer is commonly caused by long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. Nonsmokers account for 15% of lung cancer cases, and these cases are often attributed to a combination of genetic factors.

Studies have shown that more people in the US die from lung cancer than any other type of cancer. This is true for both men and women. For instance, in 2007 203,536 people in the United States were diagnosed with lung cancer in 2010. 109,643 were men and 93,893 women. (Canadian Cancer Society). Also, 158,683 people in the United States died from lung cancer, including 88,329 men and 70,354 women. According to America lung cancer society (2011) lung cancer death rate continues to climb among women while it is decreasing in men. It however remains a major public health problem in the United States. In the period between 1991 and 2006, Cancer death rates fell 21.0% among men and 12.3% among women (American Cancer Society, 2010).

Current studies have shown there is no consensus on whether cell phones cause cancer risks. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Radiation from cell phones can possibly cause cancer. The study found some evidence of increase in glioma and acoustic neuroma brain cancer for mobile phone users. There is strong evidence on cause of cancer by cell phones and therefore a close watch is needed Samet (2010). On the other hand, Studies done in Europe, New Zealand, and the U.S. revealed that patients with brain tumors have not reported using their cell phones more often than cancer-free people.

Because cell phones are held near the head when in use, the main concern has been over whether they might cause or contribute to tumors SUCH AS, malignant (cancerous) brain tumors such as gliomas, non-cancerous tumors of the brain such as meningiomas, non-cancerous tumors of the nerve connecting the brain to the ear (acoustic neuromas), non-cancerous tumors of the salivary glands. However, it appears there is limited scientific evidence that exits.

Styrofoam materials are also known as polystyrene products. Cups and other dining materials made of Styrofoam are said to contain carcinogens.  These materials may contain chemicals which may cause cancer. Polystyrene foam products can leach their component chemicals into the foods and liquids they contain.  Leaching of styrene is well known with nearly 40 years of scientific evidence, as are the resulting negative health impacts.

In conclusion, most types of cancer are treatable. With the increased vulnerability of human life, it is essential for the government and private organizations to revamp their efforts against these diseases. Many lives have been claimed by cancerous infections year in year out and there is dire need to strive for cancer-free society.


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